Virtualmin para usuarios de cPanel

Virtualmin para Usuarios de cPanel

cPanel es un viejo, pero todavía muy popular, herramienta de administración de servidor web. Debido a que muchos usuarios que son nuevos a Virtualmin solo han experimentado administración a través de cPanel, pueden encontrar términos y conceptos en Virtualmin nuevos o confusos. Esta guía corta trata de mostrar algunos imprevistos a los que los usuarios acostumbrados a cPanel se enfrentan al usar Virtualmin por primera vez.

Domains vs. Virtual Servers

cPanel se refiere a las cuentas como: "Domains", mientras que Virtualmin usa el término "Virtual Servers". cPanel también provee de distintos tipos de "domains", como "sub-domains", "parked domains", y "add-on domains". Cada uno de estos tipos de cuentas pueden ser replicadas en Virtualmin, por supuesto, pero pensamos en ellos usando diferentes términos y la forma en la que son creados son moderadamente diferentes. Virtualmin los crea con menos pasos, en la mayoría de los casos, y con mayor flexibilidad en todos los casos, pero si solo haz experimentado con cPanel puede ser intimidante en un principio.

Creando un "Sub-domain"

cPanel tiene un tipo de cuenta llamada "sub-domain", la cual crea un nuevo host virtual que solo provee servicio web y coloca el contenido en un subdirectorio dentro de la raiz de documento del dominio padre.

En Virtualmin, para crear un "sub-server" que utiliza un sub-dominio ("sub-domain), selecciona la cuenta la cuenta de "virtual server" que deseas que posea el dominio (usualmente el que tiene el nombre de dominio padre) en el menú de la izquierda de Virtualmin, y da click en "Create Virtual Server". En el formulario de creación, da click en el vínculo de "Sub-server" dentro del menu en la parte superior de la página que dice: "New virtual server type:".

Después llena el formulario de registro, con el nuevo nombre y descripción, y da click en "Create Server".

Los datos de Sub-server se guarda en el directorio de: domains dentro del directorio raiz del servidor padre. Entonces, al crear un sub-server llamado example.webdomain.com la raiz del sitio web sería /home/webdomain/domains/example/public_html.

Sub-servers en Virtualmin son más avanzados en numerosas formas que los sub-domains de cPanel. Estos pueden tener su propia configuración de PHP y modo de ejecución (mod_php, suexec+mod_fcgid, o suexec+CGI), sus propio directorio de logs, y opciones de log, e incluso tener sus propias cuentas de email (si así lo desea). Pero, estos pueden ser usados en formas muy sencillas; no hay necesidad de tomar ventaja de toda esta mayor flexibilidad si no la necesitas.

Creando un "Parked Domain"

Parked domains in cPanel are domains that point to, or are aliases of existing domains. Virtualmin calls these by their technically accurate term, alias. This is the term used by Apache and its documentation, as well as most other web servers.

To create an alias server in Virtualmin, select the virtual server you'd like to alias, or point to, in the dropdown list in the left-hand Virtualmin menu and click "Create Virtual Server". On the resulting form, click the "Alias of..." link in the New virtual server type: at the top of the page.

Fill in the form with domain name to alias to the selected virtual server, and a description, and click Create Server.

Virtualmin alias servers are more advanced than cPanel "parked domains" because Virtualmin alias servers can accept mail for the domain (automatically mapping users to those of existing users within the parent).

Migrating Existing cPanel Domains to Virtualmin

Virtualmin can import accounts from a cPanel backup file, including all mailboxes, databases, and web data. This can make the migration process much faster and easier, though there may still be some aspects of the account that cannot be directly translated to Virtualmin policies and practices. For example, Virtualmin features far more advanced mechanisms for executing PHP in different ways in the same Apache, which cannot be directly mapped from the old-style cPanel suPHP or mod_php configurations. Generally, migrations will result in working websites, but some Virtualmin features may need to be enabled (with care and testing) in order to take full advantage of the advanced capabilities of Virtualmin.

Making the cPanel Backup

To migrate all services from a cPanel server to a Virtualmin server, you'll need a full backup. To generate a full backup in cPanel, click on the Backup icon, and then click the Generate/Download a Full Backup link. Fill in the form, and click *Generate Backup*. Wait until you receive confirmation that the backup has completed, and then copy the file to your Virtualmin server.

Copying the cPanel Backup to Your Virtualmin Server

If your backup is small, you can use the cPanel download full backup page to download it to your PC right in your browser, and you can then use the upload form in Vitualmin.

If your backup is larger than a few megabytes, you'll want to copy the file using a reliable transfer mechanism, like SCP. All Linux systems have scp built in, and so can easily be used to copy the file to your new Virtualmin server.

An example of scp usage:

scp backup.tar.gz [email protected]:/root

Which will then prompt for your root password on the destination server.

Using the Migration Form

Once you have the backup available on the Virtualmin server (or on your local PC if it is small enough), you can then browse to the Migrate Virtual Server form by clicking on the Add Virtual Servers menu to expand it, and then clicking the Migrate Virtual Server link.

Fill in the form, selecting either to upload your backup file, or select the path to the file on your server.

Select a Backup file type of cPanel

Fill in the Domain name to migrate. This should match the domain you've backed up on the cPanel server.

Fill in Username for domain. This can be any valid username, but for ease of use, you may wish to use the same name used under cPanel. Virtualmin has fewer restrictions on usernames than cPanel (it allows long usernames for example, so I could name our user virtualmin rather than virtualm).

Choose a Password for administrator.

The remaining options can be left to their defaults, but it may be useful to you to change one or more of them, depending on features you'd like to use. If you will be using SSL or anonymous FTP virtual hosting, you will need to assign a new IP address just for this domain--SSL and FTP virtual hosting does not support name-based virtual servers. Realistically, anonymous FTP is almost never needed, but SSL is often required.

If you will be creating many servers via this mechanism, and have specific requirements for quotas, enabled features, etc. you may find that creating a new Server Template just for imported domains is useful and speeds up the task of getting cPanel users up and running under Virtualmin.

MySQL

Both cPanel and Virtualmin allow creation of MySQL databases, but Virtualmin simplifies the common use case, while perhaps making less common cases less obvious. In Virtualmin, if MySQL is enabled for a virtual server, a single user and database is automatically created, both with the same name as the administration user of the virtual server ("virtualmin", for example, for a domain named "virtualmin.com"). This database will be the default for Install Scripts that require a database. If the script in question is incapable of using a prefix or suffix for database table names, this may restrict which applications can be installed into the default database.

If the virtual server owner has been granted database creation privileges, the Install Scripts form will include an option to create a new database for scripts. This is generally the recommended way to deal with running more than one script within a virtual server, particularly with applications that don't support table prefixes or suffixes 

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